The four “miracles of architecture“, Battistero (Baptistry) , Cattedrale (Cathedral), Torre Pendente (Leaning Tower) and e Camposanto (Cemetery) in Piazza dei Miracoli, as the poet Gabriele D’Annunzio named it at the beginning of the 20th century, are the magnificient unique result of a single ambitious project, despite their different periods of construction. The Piazza has been Unesco Site since 1987, and one of the icon of world tourism.
The Piazza was built between the 12th and 13th century, not in the city center but in a decentralized area previously occupied by Roman dwellings and later considered a sacred area. The Piazza represents simbolically the union between Heaven and Earth: Baptistry = Birth, Cathedral = Life, Cemetery = Death and Resurrection
The monuments were built in white marble extracted by the nearby quarries of San Giuliano Terme, at the foot of the Pisan Mount. The firs monument to be finished was the Cathedral (1064), majestic masterpiece of the civic and religious power of the Sea Republic of Pisa. To be followed the Baptistry (1152), the Leaning Tower (1173, until third ring), the Old Hospital now housing the Sinopias Museum (1257), and finally the Cemetery (1277). Close to the Piazza, the restored Museo dell’Opera del Duomo boasting a beautiful cloister and loggias facing the Tower.
The monumental complex of Piazza dei Miracoli has been managed by the “Opera della Primaziale Pisana“, the civic-religious institution born in the 11th century to construct and supervise the monuments.