The Etruscans at Volterra already knew these places for the alabaster quarries. Indeed, there has always been a connection between Castellina Marittima and the quarries. In fact, an alabaster ecomuseum has been established in collaboration with Volterra and Santa Luce, the other municipalities that have most exploited the large quantities of this sedimentary rock in the subsoil. The medieval town of Castellina was located in a strategically important position, near the coast, and was controlled first by the Counts of Gherardesca and then by the Medicis, who made it a marquisate. An earthquake in 1846 destroyed part of the town, though there were no casualties.
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