The site where Casale Marittimo can be found today was, in the seventh century BCE, an important Etruscan settlement, an outpost towards the sea of the city of Volterra. These were densely populated areas also in Roman times as testified by the sumptuous Villa della Pieve. The centre of town life, since the Middle Ages up to the present day, has been the town Castle, that sits on top of the concentric rings of roads climbing up through the houses, passing by the Clock Tower and the Casa del Camarlingo (House of the Chamberlain).
The narrow and steep roads of Casale Marittimo lead to the town’s most noteworthy medieval buildings such as the Pieve di Sant’Andrea, a former church which today houses the town hall, and the Palazzo della Canonica, renovated last century.
Over the centuries, the coastal marshland that once lay before the Casale hill was an entry point for pirates, as well as being a most inhospitable place, so much so that it was the cause of the depopulation of the hill itself. From the mid-18th century, with the reclamation of the plain, Casale repopulated, becoming the healthiest village in the whole area, specialized in cereal, olive and vine cultivation. Agriculture therefore became the main source of income for the families of the old town. Over the last decades, however, tourism has become another fundamental sector for the local community.
Casale Marittimo is a member of the eco-tourist Orange Flag (Bandiera Arancione) Association of the Italian Touring Club.