A 10th-century document from the archbishop Archive of Lucca reports that some rich Longobard lords founded a village of “capanne” (huts), the present-day Capannoli, because the settlements on the banks of the river Era had experienced frequent flooding. It was the noble Della Gherardesca family that brought the village greater importance building here a castle. In the 13th century it passed under Pisa, then under the Florentines and later to the Lorena family. In Santo Pietro Belvedere, a nearby hamlet, the urbanistic structure dating back to the Middle Ages is still visible.The territory is dotted with stately villas built by noble Tuscan families in this charming countryside.
In recent years the area has seen a significant population growth, due to the economic expansion of small handicraft and industrial activities
The requalification has touched also the tourism activity, with the opening of the complex of the Museums of Villa Baciocchi, including Zoological Museum, Archeological Museum and the Botanical Park.
The quiet and charming countryside is crossed by the Wine Route of the Pisan Hills as well as many walking or cycling routes, horseback trails. Along the Strada Provinciale della Fila, connecting Pontedera to Peccioli, you can find the Valdera Airfield, one of the best-known airfields in Italy, home of the Pisa Aero Club, flight school of the best skydiving national teams.